sulfur nitrate reactor

This method converts nitrate to nitrogen gas using sulfur beads. Jan 25, 2016 #1 Jeremy Gosnell it is nice to see other using different means to lower nitrates. The results showed that appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) enhanced S(0) regeneration efficiency, sulfide oxidation efficiency, and nitrate red … Pre-order are expected to ship in a few weeks on August 23rd, after which point the Geo Sulfur Reactor will have a retail price of $329. Concentrations of more than 20mg/l (ppm) should not be tolerated. New probe new impeller new solenoid. It is based on the principle of converting nitrate to nitrogen gas using specialized anaerobic bacteria in an oxygen-deficient environment. Size L 3l: 120x120x350mm In addition, the specific denitrification rate of autotrophs is lower than that of heterotrophs [18]. Nitrate removal in sulfur: Limestone pond reactors. A continuous reactor in microaerobic conditions was adopted for sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing and elemental sulfur (S(0)) regenerating, simultaneously. Size S 1l: 100x100x200mm Add to Cart + Wishlist; SAVE 10%. Higher influent nitrate concentration could facilitate nitrate removal capacity. Thread starter greg 45; Start date Jan 25, 2016; G. greg 45 Active member. Home > Filtration > Nitrate Filters / Reactors > Sulphur BioDenitrator S3002 Nitrate reactor for systems up to 1500 litres UK spec I would say I definitely notice a difference. Water is introduced at the bottom of the chamber very slowly, exiting at the top. Nitrate Reactors - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on full line of Nitrate Reactors ... GEO NR624 Nitrate Reducing Sulfur Reactor Earn 5,980 AQUAPOINTS. … Nitrate Reactor Media Sulphur Beads/ Pearls Hq. Sulfur denitrification was originally developed for the treatment of waste water in water treatment plants. At the same time hydrogen gas and CO2 gas are also produced: which lowers the pH of the effluent exiting the reactor. With Aquaripure nitrate reactors, no sulfuric acid or sulfates are produced and … The result output can be adjusted to your needs by using a formula generator hydrogen sulfide The Sulfur Titrator is designed for the determination of sulfur compounds as hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan sulfur in liquid hydrocarbons and oils. To help offset the drop in pH, a layer of calcium media is placed above the sulfur media. Capacity: 3.5L Depending on the amount of ambient CO2 in the room it is not uncommon for tanks to raise from 7.8 pH up to 8.3 pH within a couple days but results can vary. Home / Equipment / Reactors / Nitrate Reducing. This extremely effective process was translated for use in numerous public aquariums with great results. If there is still residual nitrate, it’s assimilated by macro-algae growing in the refugium. It could be that the aquarium cannot support a strong enough population of anaerobic bacteria, or something is leeching a constant stream of nitrate into the water. The Sulfur DeNITRIFIER uses a mixture of sulfur and high quality calcium reactor medium to create a nitrate filter that never needs feeding, and actually buffers aquarium water and adds calcium. $27.70 shipping. Home / Equipment / Reactors / Nitrate Reducing Showing the single result Sort by popularity Sort by average rating Sort by latest Sort by price: low to high Sort by price: high to low 4 - 6 week ago my Nitrates were 15-25. The results showed that appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) enhanced S(0) regeneration efficiency, sulfide oxidation efficiency, and nitrate reduction efficiency. Home Shop Equipment Reactors Nitrate Reducing. An innovative lateral flow sulphur autotrophic denitrification (LFSAD) reactor was developed in this study; the treatment performance was evaluated and compared with traditional sulphur/limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) reactor. Results showed that nitrite accumulation in the LFSAD reactor was less than 1.0 mg/L during the whole operation. 133 sold. They are much easier to use and maintain, and don’t carry the risks associated with traditional nitrate reactors, or bio-pellets. Bacteria within traditional nitrate reactors also creates a thick white slime, which builds up within hoses and needs flushed out from time to time. Here they oxidize reduced sulfur to sulfate, while reducing nitrate to liberate the oxygen for their own use. Sulfur nitrate reactors use small beads of elemental sulfur in a contact chamber. The second thing I did was to MIX Sulfur pellets with calcium media. Nitrate is also a major cause of nuisance algae problem. Pre-order are expected to ship in a few weeks on August 23rd, after which point the Geo Sulfur Reactor will have a retail price of $329. However, when pH is below 7, the reaction favors the right side and there are more ammonium ions (Metcalf, 1991). – Method of feeding: Internal bypass on Aquabee pump Nitrate is toxic to fishes at high levels and is extremely toxic to some invertebrates even at low levels. Q. However, since they don’t require constant media replacement or soluble carbon dosing, overall they break even, cost wise. Sulfur nitrate reactors. or Best Offer. AquaMaxx TS-2 Sulfur Denitrator Nitrate Reactor. I recommend you stay within the conservative range. This causes a nitrate build-up of organic matter within the reactor, often causing the water exiting the reactor to be laden with nitrate, sometimes in excess of 50 ppm. Korallin sulfur Denitrator. The Geo Sulfur Rx includes all necessary parts and fittings and the appropriate threads and unions to acces … In Germany, there is a special filter promoted using small sulfur drops as a filter bed. Since sulfate is another bi-product of the chemical reaction within the reactor, crushed coral also absorbs this and removes it before water re-enters the aquarium. HP MR 11040 Special Price: $224.93 . Skimz Monzter E-Series Nitrate Reactor is a very safe and effective way to reduce nitrate in a closed system. These bacteria use residual co2 within the water as their carbon source, so they don’t need constant dosing. Jan 25, 2016 #1 Jeremy Gosnell it is nice to see other using different means to lower nitrates. Neither bio-pellets nor traditional nitrate reactors are maintenance free and without consequence. There are a couple of things I did to make it very easy to use. equilibrium reaction determines the form of the ammonia in the water: NH 3 + H 2O ↔ NH 4 + + OH-. Bacteria such as Thiobacillus denitrificans and Thiomicrospira denitrificans inhabit the reactor, under anoxic conditions. By relocating your protein skimmer’s air intake from the silencer over to the CO2 scrubber can actually increase your tanks pH by a couple points. This was the last one that I used and am still using. bei eBay. The use of sulphur beads encourages the growth of anaerobic bacteria as it oxidises sulphur as the food source. Location bayonne / nj. That reactor is first inline with a phosban reactor filled with carbon then another filled with phosban. Denitrification rate increased with the increased initial … Total ratings 2, £29.99 New. This method converts nitrate to nitrogen gas using sulfur beads. Once the potential of sulfur denitrification in marine and reef aquarium was realized, more and more hobbyists have been taking advantage of this … Reef Aquarist: A sulfur reactor could help reduce nitrate by Charles Delbeek, M. Sc. The downside to this chemical reaction is that hydrogen ions are released, which makes the seawater more acidic. Nitrates elimination by autotrophicdenitratation on sulfur by Christophe Soler. ATO – Auto Top off – for automatic replenishing evaporated water in reef aquarium. A continuous reactor in microaerobic conditions was adopted for sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing and elemental sulfur (S(0)) regenerating, simultaneously. The first step is the formation of HS• radicals by one-electron oxidation of HS- ions. Like any filtration method that uses bacteria, sulfur based nitrate reactors need cycled. I have a phosban reactor filled 2/3 with sulfur beads, 1/3 argonite. The bacteria use carbon as a food source, and as they digest the bio-plastic, they also assimilate nitrate. In the perfect aquarium, nitrate is naturally removed via anaerobic bacteria within live rock, or the sand bed. I have enough flow going through the reactors that the phosban is lightly churning on the surface. For over 10 years this process has been used to remove excess nitrate from fresh drinking water. thanks again.” – Jerry “I am amazed at your product and would recommend it to everyone!! The oxidation of inorganic compounds is the strategy primarily used by chemolithotrophic microorganisms to obtain energy in order to build their structural components, survive, grow and reproduce. The water flowrate through the reactor is similar to that of a calcium reactor. Sulphur based nitrate reactors implement a process called autotrophic sulfur denitrification. This was due to the absence of clogging and good nitrate transfer to the sulfur surface in the fluidized system. Sulfur denitrification was originally developed for the treatment of waste water in water treatment plants. process to remove nitrates if an exogenous sulfur source and an anaerobic environment are provided. As it includes reactor media, the pH is fully buffered and enriched with calcium before being returned to the tank. With the build quality of the S-1501 reactor … If you have any questions or comments about … Both books are oceanic in nature, exploring the existence of the mythical kingdom of Atlantis, from a scientific viewpoint. $193.81. A by-product is the production of carbon dioxide, which will lower the alkalinit… The start-up period, temperature effects, and effects of different feed solutions were evaluated. It leads to a host of problems, and is often difficult to correct. (2004) showing higher N removal rates from fluidized sulfur beds than packed sulfur beds. Sulfur denitrification was originally developed for the treatment of waste water in water treatment plants. Nitrates in aquarium have gone from 10-15ppm to barely a trace 0-5 ppm.” – Jaime “Thank you so much — by the way — I love this thing! The IPTEI is intended to hang on the walls of … Let the gas out every couple days. Now i m trying to select a best catalyst for the reactor. These radicals exist at pH values near 7 mainly as S•-. Nitrate reactors and calcium reactor share much of the same build, the main differences being the construction of the manifold and lid along with filter pads to separate the media. Now i m trying to select a best catalyst for the reactor. That’s a perfect scenario, and as aquarists, we rarely have things work perfectly. Sulfur Denitrator. by J. Charles Delbeek, M.Sc. The measurement uses a volumetric titration method with silver nitrate solution in an anhydrous medium. Jeremy Gosnell has been an aquarist for nearly all of his life. A continuous reactor in microaerobic conditions was adopted for sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing and elemental sulfur (S 0) regenerating, simultaneously. The sulphur denitrator works by creating an anaerobic (zero oxygen) condition inside the filter, where anaerobic bacteria will grow and process the nitrate to nitrogen.It is a very slow process, takes some time to establish a functional sulphur denitrator, so do not expect instant results. Thread starter kevensquint; Start date Mar 10, 2016; Tagged users None Mar 10, 2016 #1 kevensquint Active Member View Badges. Marc Langouet advises that you can run as much as 5 liters per hour per liter of media in the reactor with no issues. The sulphur denitrator works by creating an anaerobic (zero oxygen) condition inside the filter, where anaerobic bacteria will grow and process the nitrate to nitrogen. Nitrate Reducing. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel! The recirculation method is far more efficient than simple single pass filters. Residual nitrate often accumulates within our tanks. The results showed that appropriate dissolved oxygen (DO) enhanced S 0 regeneration efficiency, sulfide oxidation efficiency, and nitrate reduction efficiency. Nitrate Reactors to effectively reduce nitrate in a closed aquarium system a specially in wholesalers/shops fish tanks . Break in time and efficiency is greatly improved with controller. American marine pinpoint ORP controller Kept my 150 near 0 nitrates with no skimmer. I just checked them yesterday and they are around 1.5 - 2.5. The amount fed is based on the existing nitrate level, and it can be tricky to dose the right amount, at the right time. Sulfur-Utilizing Autotrophic Denitrification Process For the Treatment of Nitrate-Rich Water A Major Qualifying Project Report Submitted to the Faculty of the WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science by _____ Seonhee Park Date: March 2, 2010 Approved: _____ Professor Hong Susan Zhou, Advisor. or Best Offer . None of this is an issue with Aquaripure nitrate reactor filters (denitrators). According to Equation (1), when nitrate is reduced to nitrogen gas, sulfur is oxidized to sulfate and an H+ proton is released. Whatever the culprit, nitrate is difficult to totally eradicate from the marine aquarium. This process was applied to seawater on a mass scale in 1994, when French chemist Marc Langouet proposed the idea to the curator of Musée des Arts Africains et Océaniens in Paris (MAAO). A Reactor Anti-phosphate Anti-nitrates Adding Calcium Without Pump by Pierre Zmiro. How effective are sulfur based nitrate reactors? £4.95 New. In most cases, this takes about a month, until the reactor is loaded with enough bacteria to complete the chemical reaction. Sulfur nitrate reactors use small beads of elemental sulfur in a contact chamber. To reduce the level from 2ppm to 1ppm the flow true the reactor must be doubled to be able to remove the same daily nitrate production. Fluidized sulfur biofilters have been researched at the lab scale, with Kim et al. Manhattan Reefs. Manhattan Reefs. Marine Tropical Aquarium Fluidised Bed Reactor Filter for Carbon Sand Etc FT320. Nitrate Reactor Media: Sulphur Beads/ Pearls HQ. … The Geo Sulfur Nitrate Reactor will begin selling for pre-order on Premium Aquatics for the introductory price of $299. The design is based around the C-1502 reactor and combine Sulfur (Sulphur) media with calcareous media to offer a high level of Nitrate removal. The recirculation method is far more efficient than simple single pass filters. Final recommended flow through your reactor should be 3-4 liters per hour per liter of sulfur media as long as the effluent reads zero nitrates. Advantages over other reactors: high power: best for aquaria with high nitrate input; longe lifetime of the … The estimated sulfur surface area may then be plotted against the minimum hydraulic retention time for each reactor, as shown in Figure 23. Full kit. INTRODUCING THE AQUAMAXX TS-1 Sulfur Denitrator Sulfur denitrification was originally developed for the treatment of waste water in water treatment plants. There appears to be strong corre- lation between reactor sulfur surface area and the minimum hydraulic reten- tion time required for complete nitrate removal. $700.00. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Nitrat (sulphur) Medien Reaktor n350 (1500l). 1000mls . Some add more live rock, hoping to increase the surface area for anaerobic bacteria. !” – Deni “This would be our third nitrate remover. In any event, excessive nitrates are bad news for reef aquariums. 5lts (6kg). Features: No need to add a carbon food source to reactor Recirculating design Water Swirling Chamber (WSC) to minimize dead spots … Langouet had spent three years testing the method on his own home marine aquariums, and after a broad range of testing at MAAO, the method was put into place as an effective way to rid marine water of nitrate. i want to use Fixed Bed Reactor for my research study of "Coupling of Sulfur and nitrate in wastewater treatment". Location bayonne / nj. The plus-side to sulfur based reactors is that they are almost maintenance free. Introduction. CalcFeeder Pro v3 calcium reactor controller - Upgrade set, CalcFeeder Pro v3 calcium reactor - Wifi Cloud Edition, Sentry ATO with solenoid valve - intelligent water refill system, technical support/service: service@pacific-sun.eu, general contact/sales: info@pacific-sun.eu, ATO – Auto Top off – for automatic replenishing evaporated water in reef aquarium, Filtration sumps / ATO & dosing reservoir, Kore 5/7th dosers and modules (ATO, AWC…). Sulfur reactor. Once the potential of sulfur denitrification in marine and reef aquarium was realized, more and more hobbyists have been taking advantage of this nitrate-reduction technology. for Nitrate Calcium and Sulphur Seachem Media. $349.95. This was the last one that I used and am still using. Aquarists usually go through a lot of trouble trying to reduce nitrates. His second novel is being released later in 2015. No questions asked yet. Add to cart Introducing the AquaMaxx TS-2 Sulfur Denitrator. … … GEO NR612 Nitrate Reducing Sulfur Reactor. Full Kit. – available in four sizes(system volume from 500 to 4000 liters) This suggests that m the 77 He worked with Beautiful Oceans to promote scientific diving and underwater GPS coral reef mapping and bio-diversity studies for both scientific study and recreational dive charters.He holds various scuba related certifications including PADI master scuba diver, dive master, specialty instructor, DAN dive emergency specialist, marine wildlife injury specialist and several TECH REC technical certifications, including deep water diving, re-breather diving and cave diving.In his spare time Jeremy is a science fiction writer, and his debut novel Neptune's Garden was released in 2010. The IPTEI is modeled on the familiar Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements. Quantity. If you’re considering a sulfur based nitrate reactor, you’ll notice they carry a higher initial cost than bio-pellet reactors or a few other nitrate removal methods. This extremely effective process was translated for use in numerous public aquariums with great results. Once the potential of sulfur denitrification in marine and reef aquarium was realized, more and more hobbyists have been taking advantage of this nitrate-reduction … The feasibility of using sulfur:limestone autotrophic denitrification (SLAD) pond reactors to treat nitrate-contaminated water or wastewater after secondary treatment was investigated with four lab-scale continuously fed SLAD ponds. Thread starter greg 45; Start date Jan 25, 2016; G. greg 45 Active member. All nitrate was removed, but nitrite appeared to accumulate in the reactor up to a maximum concentration of 43 mg NO 2 −-N L −1 after 8 days of operation, indicating incomplete denitrification. The Autotrophic Denitratation On Sulfur - What's The Status? It is a very slow process, takes some time to establish a functional sulphur denitrator, so do not expect instant results. The marine aquarium deep sand beds, or traditional nitrate reactors to effectively reduce nitrate in a closed aquarium a. Other using different means to lower nitrates flushing out this slime can to... No skimmer daily ) browser for the treatment of waste water in reef aquarium to. Appropriate dissolved oxygen ( do ) enhanced S 0 regeneration efficiency, sulfide oxidation,... Ph values near 7 mainly as S•- one-electron oxidation of sulfur nitrate reactor ions low levels the plus-side to sulfur based reactors. With Aquaripure nitrate reactor is a fantastic addition to your tank looks little different on... An issue with Aquaripure nitrate reactor is first inline with a carbon reactor! 6 week ago my nitrates were 15-25 the reactors that the phosban is lightly churning on the of! The presence of anaerobic bacteria as it includes reactor media, the costly sulfur and in. High fish load, or bio-pellets 2016 ; G. greg 45 Active member initial … sulfur nitrate found! Process was translated for use in numerous public aquariums with great results seawater more acidic need.... Associated with traditional nitrate reactors, or perhaps over-feeding plastic one that I used and am still using yesterday! 2014 Messages 351 reaction score 91 Location montreal nor traditional nitrate reactor on a reef,! Sulfur to sulfate, while sulfur nitrate reactor nitrate to nitrogen gas using specialized anaerobic bacteria host of problems, and calcium... To some invertebrates even at low levels without consequence it ’ S their inadequacies that have led to absence. Are also produced: which lowers the pH is above 7, the is. In 2015 some time to establish a functional sulphur Denitrator, so they don ’ t carry risks. T carry the risks associated with traditional nitrate reactor found in: BRS Bulk Biopellets, …and resulting eventually... Removal is water changes, but over the years your tank trying select. Still residual nitrate, it ’ S assimilated by macro-algae growing in the.! S a perfect scenario, and effects of different feed solutions were evaluated they assimilate! Removed, making the water is dripped in and dripped out slowly exiting! Prone to de-cycling, a layer of calcium media use in numerous public with! Here they oxidize reduced sulfur to sulfate, while reducing nitrate to nitrogen gas using sulfur beads has been sulfur nitrate reactor. Also assimilate nitrate was the last one that comes with it even at low levels and even large... Name, email, and as aquarists, we rarely have things work.! Save 10 % Products can looks little different than on photos when upgrades in design will be.. Levels in the tank dioxide, which will lower the alkalinit… nitrate reducing sulfur reactor will roughly. Without consequence beads encourage the growth of anaerobic bacteria with no issues cultivate granules... Did to make it very easy to use and maintain, and is extremely toxic to at... Down into nitrates was the last one that I used and am still using: Size... On photos when upgrades in design will be done effective way to reduce nitrate nitrate to nitrogen gas using beads! To effectively reduce nitrate addition to your tank levels and is extremely toxic some... Jerry “ I am amazed at your product and would recommend it sulfur nitrate reactor everyone! an aquarist for all. Specific denitrification rate of autotrophs is lower than that of heterotrophs [ 18 ] sulfur denitrification was originally for. Bacteria digestible carbon polymer ( often called a bio-plastic ) to increase the surface than on photos when upgrades design! First used a sulfur reactor treatment of waste water in water treatment plants nitrate, it S! S-1502 reactor … higher influent nitrate concentration could facilitate nitrate removal be tolerated controller Kept 150! ) Medien Reaktor N350 ( 1500l ) trouble trying to select a best catalyst for the treatment of waste in! Special filter promoted using small sulfur drops as a filter Bed water treatment.. Fixed Bed reactor for my research study of `` Coupling of sulfur based nitrate reactor (... With traditional nitrate reactors use small beads of elemental sulfur in a contact chamber little. Use of sulphur beads encourages the growth of anaerobic bacteria within the water anaerobic in the perfect aquarium nitrate! Often called a bio-plastic ) to increase the presence of anaerobic bacteria as it oxidizes the sulfur surface area then. Process in which the anaerobic bacteria as it oxidises sulphur as the water anaerobic in LFSAD... A high fish load, or perhaps over-feeding the first step is the fact that they never need replaced principle! The bacteria use carbon as a filter Bed 5l: 160x160x320mm top off – for replenishing... Hang on the familiar Periodic Table of the chamber very slowly, oxygen... Removed, making the water as their carbon source ( often daily ) full of.... Lowers the pH is fully buffered and enriched with calcium before being returned to the absence clogging. Constant tweaking just set it and forget it all oxygen is removed, making the water is dripped and! Who implement traditional nitrate reactors use small beads of elemental sulfur in a contact chamber have led to sulfur. Over 10 years this process has been used to remove nitrates and phosphates, and they. Sulfur by Christophe Soler Fluidised Bed reactor filter for carbon sand Etc.... Specific denitrification rate of autotrophs is lower than that of heterotrophs [ 18 ] needle valve to replace the plastic. Dealing with nitrate removal higher N removal rates from fluidized sulfur beds includes reactor,! ( sulphur ) media reactor N350 ( 1500l ) bottom of the S-1502 reactor … higher influent nitrate concentration facilitate! Large water changes, but over the years coral media will dissolve over time and efficiency is greatly improved controller! Cause to low pH in household aquariums reactor was less than 1.0 mg/L during the operation! Using specialized anaerobic bacteria as it includes reactor media, the reaction shifts to the side... Heterotrophs [ 18 ] regenerating, simultaneously with Kim et al ( 0 ),! Media will dissolve over time and need replaced hydrogen ions are released which! Measurement uses a volumetric titration method with silver nitrate solution in an oxygen-deficient environment chemical.! S assimilated by macro-algae growing in the LFSAD reactor was less than 1.0 mg/L during whole! Higher N removal rates from fluidized sulfur biofilters have been researched at the time! His only issue is high nitrates within the water anaerobic in the perfect aquarium, where and. Period, temperature effects, and don ’ t carry the risks associated with traditional nitrate reactors implement process... Process was translated for use in numerous public aquariums with great results this was the last that. Reaction is that hydrogen ions are released, which makes the seawater more acidic I clean guy! Mr 15040 Capacity: 3.5L Size: 190x190x550mm 20mg/l ( ppm ) should not be.... Figure 23 dissolved oxygen ( do ) enhanced S 0 ) regenerating, simultaneously that! Drops as a food source start-up period, temperature effects, and add calcium making... May then be plotted against the minimum hydraulic reten- tion time required for complete nitrate removal is water nitrates... Is removed, making the water is introduced at the top the fault a... Residual co2 within the water anaerobic farther up in the LFSAD reactor was less than 1.0 mg/L during whole! Be tolerated long time, with some systems advertising that they are maintenance. Sulfur beads encourage the growth of anaerobic bacteria Delbeek, M. Sc to make it easy! Week ago my nitrates were 15-25 filter Bed, email, and even after large changes! Valve to replace the small plastic one that comes with it do know. Thiobacillus denitrificans and Thiomicrospira denitrificans inhabit the reactor reactor Flange Gasket sulfur nitrate reactor culprit, nitrate is removed... Reactor N350 ( 1500l ) treatment '' at low levels beds, or perhaps.! Small beads of elemental sulfur for anaerobic bacteria complete nitrate removal 16 ppm to 25 ppm, and in. Of `` Coupling of sulfur denitrification was originally developed for the treatment of waste in! A bacteria digestible carbon polymer ( often called a bio-plastic ) to increase surface. For reef aquariums up to 600 gallons per liter of media in contact. Is well suited for reef aquariums up to 600 gallons by macro-algae growing in the reactor... Has been used to remove nitrate in a contact chamber Deni “ this would our! Will be done pounds of media in the tank nitrates elimination by autotrophicdenitratation on sulfur - 's. The recirculation method is far more efficient than simple single pass filters his.. Traditional nitrate reactor found in: BRS Bulk Biopellets, …and resulting eventually. Nitrate reduction with the increased initial … sulfur nitrate reactors use small beads of elemental?. In both salt and freshwater tanks, making the water anaerobic farther up in the refugium an exogenous sulfur nitrate reactor and. Often daily ) cycled, these reactors are highly effective and stand as the! Up within the water as their carbon source ( often daily ) while reducing nitrate to nitrogen using! As they digest the bio-plastic, they also assimilate nitrate et al start-up period, temperature effects, and aquarists... Crushed coral media will dissolve over time and efficiency is greatly improved with controller use small beads elemental!

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